Der Apollo war einer der Wichtigsten der olympischen Gottheiten im antiken Griechenland. Apollo war der Gott des Lichts, Heilung und Musik. Er ist der Sohn. Apollo: God of the Sun Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece: vzemioferta.com: Temple, Teri: Fremdsprachige Bücher. Apollo, Greek God, Greek Gods, Greek Mythology, Mythology. Embed this image on your website or blog NOW! Just drop in the embed code below and you're.
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Apollo is the Olympian god of the sun and light, music and poetry, healing and plagues, prophecy and knowledge, order and beauty, archery and agriculture.
An embodiment of the Hellenic ideal of kalokagathia , he is harmony, reason and moderation personified, a perfect blend of physical superiority and moral virtue.
A complex deity who turns up in art and literature possibly as often as Zeus himself, Apollo is the only major god who appears with the same name in both Greek and Roman mythology.
The origin of the name Apollo is still not properly understood. However, in time, he evolved to become a multifaceted god adored all over Greece as the perfectly developed classical male nude, the kouros.
Beardless and athletically built, he is often depicted with a laurel crown on his head and either a bow and arrow or a lyre and plectrum in his hands.
The sacrificial tripod — representing his prophetic powers — was another common attribute of Apollo , just as few animals linked with the god in various myths : wolf, dolphin, python , mouse, deer, swan.
Apollo was in charge of so many things that, naturally, even his more famous epithets are numerous. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto.
Nobody would accept the pregnant Titaness, except for the island of Delos, where Leto first delivered Artemis while balancing her body on an olive branch.
Afterward, Artemis helped her mother deliver Apollo as well. Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology. Daphne was a nymph whose parentage varies.
She scorned Apollo's advances and ran away from him. When Apollo chased her in order to persuade her, she changed herself into a laurel tree.
According to other versions, she cried for help during the chase, and Gaea helped her by taking her in and placing a laurel tree in her place. The myth explains the origin of the laurel and connection of Apollo with the laurel and its leaves, which his priestess employed at Delphi.
The leaves became the symbol of victory and laurel wreaths were given to the victors of the Pythian games. Apollo is said to have been the lover of all nine Muses , and not being able to choose one of them, decided to remain unwed.
Cyrene , was a Thessalian princess whom Apollo loved. In her honor, he built the city Cyrene and made her its ruler. She was later granted longevity by Apollo who turned her into a nymph.
The couple had two sons, Aristaeus , and Idmon. Evadne was a nymph daughter of Poseidon and a lover of Apollo. She bore him a son, Iamos.
During the time of the childbirth, Apollo sent Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth to assist her.
Rhoeo , a princess of the island of Naxos was loved by Apollo. Out of affection for her, Apollo turned her sisters into goddesses.
On the island Delos she bore Apollo a son named Anius. Not wanting to have the child, she entrusted the infant to Apollo and left.
Apollo raised and educated the child on his own. Ourea, a daughter of Poseidon , fell in love with Apollo when he and Poseidon were serving the Trojan king Laomedon.
They both united on the day the walls of Troy were built. Ileus was very dear to Apollo. Thero , daughter of Phylas , a maiden as beautiful as the moonbeams, was loved by the radiant Apollo, and she loved him in return.
By their union, she became mother of Chaeron, who was famed as "the tamer of horses". He later built the city Chaeronea. Hyrie or Thyrie was the mother of Cycnus.
Apollo turned both the mother and son into swans when they jumped into a lake and tried to kill themselves. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive.
He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus , and Apollo avenged his death by killing Achilles. After the sack of Troy, Hecuba was taken to Lycia by Apollo.
Coronis , was daughter of Phlegyas , King of the Lapiths. While pregnant with Asclepius , Coronis fell in love with Ischys , son of Elatus and slept with him.
When Apollo found out about her infidelity through his prophetic powers, he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis.
Apollo rescued the baby by cutting open Koronis' belly and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. He used his powers to conceal her pregnancy from her father.
Later, when Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi , where he was raised by a priestess.
Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's favorite lovers. The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly.
Apollo is said to be filled with grief. The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus.
Another male lover was Cyparissus , a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth.
Cyparissus was so saddened by its death that he asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.
Admetus , the king of Pherae, was also Apollo's lover. The romantic nature of their relationship was first described by Callimachus of Alexandria, who wrote that Apollo was "fired with love" for Admetus.
He would also make cheese and serve it to Admetus. His domestic actions caused embarrassment to his family. Oh how often his sister Diana blushed at meeting her brother as he carried a young calf through the fields!
When Admetus wanted to marry princess Alcestis , Apollo provided a chariot pulled by a lion and a boar he had tamed.
This satisfied Alcestis' father and he let Admetus marry his daughter. Further, Apollo saved the king from Artemis' wrath and also convinced the Moirai to postpone Admetus' death once.
Branchus , a shepherd, one day came across Apollo in the woods. Captivated by the god's beauty, he kissed Apollo. Apollo requited his affections and wanting to reward him, bestowed prophetic skills on him.
His descendants, the Branchides, were an influential clan of prophets. Apollo sired many children, from mortal women and nymphs as well as the goddesses.
His children grew up to be physicians, musicians, poets, seers or archers. Many of his sons founded new cities and became kings.
They were all usually very beautiful. Asclepius is the most famous son of Apollo. His skills as a physician surpassed that of Apollo's.
Zeus killed him for bringing back the dead, but upon Apollo's request, he was resurrected as a god. Aristaeus was placed under the care of Chiron after his birth.
He became the god of beekeeping, cheese making, animal husbandry and more. He was ultimately given immortality for the benefits he bestowed upon the humanity.
The Corybantes were spear-clashing, dancing demigods. The sons of Apollo who participated in the Trojan War include the Trojan princes Hector and Troilus , as well as Tenes , the king of Tenedos , all three of whom were killed by Achilles over the course of the war.
Apollo fathered 3 daughters, Apollonis , Borysthenis and Cephisso , who formed a group of minor Muses, the "Musa Apollonides".
They were nicknamed Nete, Mese and Hypate after the highest, middle and lowest strings of his lyre. Anius , Pythaeus and Ismenus lived as high priests.
Most of them were trained by Apollo himself. He also had a son named Chrysorrhoas who was a mechanic artist. Apollo turned Parthenos into a constellation after her early death.
Additionally, Apollo fostered and educated Chiron , the centaur who later became the greatest teacher and educated many demigods, including Apollo's sons.
Apollo also fostered Carnus , the son of Zeus and Europa. Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.
Sinope , a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin.
Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea. To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go.
Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos , which was then named after her.
Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses.
Cassandra , was a daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo wished to court her. Cassandra promised to return his love on one condition - he should give her the power to see the future.
Apollo fulfilled her wish, but she went back on her word and rejected him soon after. Angered that she broke her promise, Apollo cursed her that even though she would see the future, no one would ever believe her prophecies.
Hestia , the goddess of the hearth, rejected both Apollo's and Poseidon's marriage proposals and swore that she would always stay unmarried.
Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is thea apollousa , that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity.
In the pre-Hellenic period, their relationship was described as the one between husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo.
However, this relationship was never sexual but spiritual,  which is why they both are seen being unmarried in the Hellenic period.
Artemis, like her brother, is armed with a bow and arrows. She is the cause of sudden deaths of women. She also is the protector of the young, especially girls.
Though she has nothing to do with oracles, music or poetry, she sometimes led the female chorus on Olympus while Apollo sang. Artemis Daphnaia had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi.
Hecate , the goddess of witchcraft and magic, is the chthonic counterpart of Apollo. They both are cousins, since their mothers - Leto and Asteria - are sisters.
One of Apollo's epithets, Hecatos , is the masculine form of Hecate, and both the names mean "working from afar".
While Apollo presided over the prophetic powers and magic of light and heaven, Hecate presided over the prophetic powers and magic of night and chthonian darkness.
Hecate is the goddess of crossroads and Apollo is the god and protector of streets. The oldest evidence found for Hecate's worship is at Apollo's temple in Miletos.
There, Hecate was taken to be Apollo's sister counterpart in the absence of Artemis. As a deity of knowledge and great power, Apollo was seen being the male counterpart of Athena.
Being Zeus' favorite children, they were given more powers and duties. Apollo and Athena often took up the role as protectors of cities, and were patrons of some of the important cities.
Athena was the principle goddess of Athens , Apollo was the principle god of Sparta. As patrons of arts, Apollo and Athena were companions of the Muses , the former a much more frequent companion than the latter.
In the Trojan war, as Zeus' executive, Apollo is seen holding the aegis like Athena usually does. In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war.
Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover.
Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance.
Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.
They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena.
Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo.
The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".
After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.
The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games.
Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia ,  Pyanepsia , and Thargelia.
Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria.
Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword.
Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi.
The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos.
Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , ravens , hawks , crows Apollo had hawks and crows as his messengers ,  snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.
Homer and Porphyry wrote that Apollo had a hawk as his messenger. As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE.
According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention an Asia Minor god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.
In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.
In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.
The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea , he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus.
This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean.
This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance.
Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.
The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity.
The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.
The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.
In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.
Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization.
The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.
Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.
This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms.
Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.
His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.
In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".
The forms on Earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.
The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual.
Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece.
This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.
The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason.
The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.
When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods.
Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order. In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.
The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive. This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself.
The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity. According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.
It is considered that he created also the New York kouros , which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.
The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus Phaistos and the mythic Daedalus the builder of the labyrinth that made images which moved of their own accord.
This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment.
The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos.
Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios , Boeotia alone.
Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus , the harbour of Athens.
The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand. It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus.
The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art.
The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens.
Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later.
At the beginning of the Classical period , it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions.
The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment Myron , which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.
The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances. Polykleitos in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements materials , but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole.
It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras. The famous Apollo of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in which the god holds the cithara in his left arm.
The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos but more archaic.
The Apollo held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps.
Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone. The statues of Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age.
Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art.
Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same.
Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.
In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base.
The Siphnian Treasury in Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling.
The pediment shows the story of Heracles stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration.
Their two figures hold the centre. In the pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia , the single figure of Apollo is dominating the scene. These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake.
They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs.
In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.
Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara as Apollo Citharoedus or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types.
He was also a god of crops and herds. In art, Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed. He was also often depicted with one or both of his two main attributes: a bow and a lyre.
The bow symbolized distance, death, terror, and awe, while the lyre more gently proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus through music, poetry, and dance.
Apollo had many love affairs, though most had unfortunate endings. In art Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed.
Distance, death, terror, and awe were summed up in his symbolic bow. A gentler side of his nature, however, was shown in his other attribute, the lyre , which proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus the home of the gods through music, poetry, and dance.
Though Apollo was the most Hellenic of all gods, he derived mostly from a type of god that originated in Anatolia and spread to Egypt by way of Syria and Palestine.
From there Apollo went to Pytho Delphi , where he slew Python , the dragon that guarded the area. He established his oracle by taking on the guise of a dolphin, leaping aboard a Cretan ship, and forcing the crew to serve him.
Thus, Pytho was renamed Delphi after the dolphin delphis , and the Cretan cult of Apollo Delphinius superseded that previously established there by Earth Gaea.
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